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Timor-Leste

  • Capital Dili (8°55´ S, 125°56´ E)
  • International airport(s) Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport, Dili
  • Official language(s) Tetum, Portuguese
  • Currency United States dollar (US$)
  • Time UTC +9
  • Region Pacific
GeographyClimateEconomyCulture
Timor‐Leste lies 400 km north of Australia, across the Timor Sea, and belongs to the Lesser Sunda Islands. It comprises the eastern half of Timor Island (which it shares with Indonesia), the separate enclave of Oecusse, situated in West Timor and the small offshore islands of Atauro and Jaco. Timor‐Leste is extremely rocky, with mountains rising to over 2 000 m. Tatamailau, sometimes also referred to as Mount Ramelau, is the highest peak in Timor‐Leste, measuring 2 986 m. Almost half of Timor‐Leste's land area has a slope of 40 degrees or more. There are some highland plains, important for agriculture, to the west of Baucau and around Lospalos and Maliana.
Timor‐Leste has a tropical climate with a dry season from May to November, and a wet season for the remainder of the year. Average monthly temperatures are high and vary between 24‐27 °C throughout the year. In the mountains at higher elevations, temperatures are much cooler. Generally, the total annual rainfall is between 1 200 and 1 400 mm. There is little or no rain for almost eight months of the year, and a wet season which lasts from December to March. -—
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Tropical cyclones can hit Timor‐Leste between January and mid‐April in their early stages and therefore, usually, with moderate intensity. The sea in Timor‐Leste is warm throughout the year. Water temperatures range from 27 °C in July and August to 30 °C in November and December.
Timor‐Leste's economy is mostly dependent on the extraction of oil reserves from the Timor Sea. Oil, gas and other mineral fuels and lubricants account for about 35 per cent of exports and mining contributes nearly 40 per cent to GDP. Coffee exports and tourism provide additional income. Developing agriculture and fishing are also seen as important for future growth, though currently they only account for 10 per cent of GDP. The main export destinations are Singapore, Indonesia and the United States of America. -—
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According to items attribute is mandatory, agriculture and services provide most of the employment opportunities in Timor‐Leste. Much of the population still live below the poverty line and unemployment is high.
The tradition of poetry is very strong in Timor‐Leste. Craftmanship is also important. The nation's music is affected by Portuguese and Indonesian influences with the guitar being a central instrument. Children usually learn traditional dancing at school.

The country has a strong culture of hospitality and is famous for its rich and dark coffee grown organically on the hills. A typical meal includes rice, meat or fish, often with beans, corn and seasonal vegetables. Spices and herbs grown in the country bring the food its local flavour. Tropical fruits are a natural part of the diet, and sometimes coconut milk is used to soften the extremely hot chili paste.

The most popular sport in Timor‐Leste is football. Cycling, martial arts, weightlifting and badminton are also quite popular. Timor‐Leste participated for the first time in the Olympic Summer Games in 2004 and in the Winter Games in 2014.
Land areakm2
Arable land%
Forest area%
Coastline
lengthkm
Exclusive economic zonekm2
Nearest
neighbourkm
Economic trendsMaritime transportPopulationInternational tradeEnvironmentInformation and communications technology
Gross domestic product
US dollars at constant prices (2015) in millions
GDP per capita

2019

US$

Productive Capacity Index

2018

Economic and environmental vulnerability index

2019

Consumer Price Index growth

2019

%

Unemployment
rate

Total %
Female %, Male %
Main economic sectors, 2019
Percentage of GDP
Tourist arrivals
Thousands of tourists, percentage of GDP
External financial resources
Percentage of GDP
Public debt as % of GDP

2018

%

Fleet size
Number of ships
Ship type20112019
Total fleet1 4071 407
Oil tankers264266
Bulk carriers311333
General cargo16177
Container ships5249
Other types of ships619682
Port performance
Ranked by 2019 data within SIDS group
Indicators2019SIDS Ranking
Number of port calls17729
Median time in port (days)18
Average age of vessels1619
Average size (GT) of vessels4 53833
Container port throuput

2019

TEU

Bilateral connectivity index, 2019
Top 5 partners
Liner shipping connectivity index
Maximum China Q1 2006=100
Total population
Thousands of people, share of urban population
Population development indicators
IndicatorsPeriodValue
Poverty headcount (% of population)201422
Human development index20180.6
Human assets index202068
Adult literacy rate (15+ years, both sexes %)....
Gender inequality index20100.6
Life expectancy at birth

years

Population density

2019

persons per km2
Dependency
ratio

2019

Child:
Old-age:
Age structure by gender, 2019
Percentage of total population
Merchandise and services trade
US dollars in millions
Indicators20052010201520192019 (% of GDP)
Merchandise exports816181547.6
Merchandise imports10924657859129.3
Services exports06873924.6
Services imports0103566744722.2
Trade openness
Goods and services

% of GDP

Export concentration index

2019

Food import
dependency
Average 2015-2019

Top 5 partners in merchandise trade, 2019
Exports in millions US dollars
Merchandise exports by product group, 2019
Services exports by category, 2019
CO2 emissions per capita
Kg per capita
CO2 emissions per GDP
Kg per 2010 US$ of GDP
Renewable energy share in total energy consumption, 2017
Percentage of total energy consumption
Material
footprint
per capita

2016

kg

Terrestrial
protected
area

2018

%

Marine
protected
area

2018

%

Disasters indicators
Data not available
Trade in ICT goods

Exports: %
Imports: %
Trade in ICT services

Exports: %
Imports: %
Share of
internet users

%

Fixed broadband vs Mobile broadband subscriptions
Number of subscriptions per 100 people
Sources
Source of data: -—
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except indicators listed below.
References
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