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Haiti

  • Capital Port-au-Prince (18°32′N 72°20′W)
  • International airport(s) Toussaint Louverture International Airport, Cap-Haïtien International Airport
  • Official language(s) French, Haitian Creole
  • Currency Gourde
  • Time UTC -5
  • Region Caribbean
GeographyClimateEconomyCulture
Haiti is a country forming the western part of the second largest island in the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola. With an area of more than 27 000 km2, Haiti is the third largest country in the Caribbean, after Cuba and the Dominican Republic, the latter of which it shares with the island of Hispaniola. The land border is about 360 km long, yet with the characteristic horseshoe shape of the country, Haiti’s coastline is disproportionately long: over 1 700 km, and the country also includes several offshore islands. Haiti’s terrain consists mostly of mountains, river valleys and small coastal plains. It is the most mountainous nation in the Caribbean.
Haiti has a tropical climate, although some variations are present depending on the altitude. Average monthly temperatures range from 23 °C in January to almost 27 °C in August. Average monthly rainfall ranges from almost 40 mm in January to peaks of over 200 mm in May and October, which are the two rainy seasons. Haiti’s topography, however, decisively determines the rainfall, with central mountainous regions receiving more rainfall than lowlands, averaging 1 200 mm and 550 mm, respectively -—
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. Haiti is often hit by hurricanes and tropical storms which cause massive flooding and deadly landslides.
Agriculture plays an important role in the Haitian economy: it accounts for almost 29 per cent of employment in the country; roughly 42 per cent for men -—
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, almost 40 per cent of the territory is classified as arable land. The share of agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing in total value added has been relatively stable in the last two decades, at about 20 per cent; stability has also been observed in industry (roughly one third) and services, which generate just below half of Haiti’s total value added -—
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. Over 85 per cent of women and 47 per cent of men in Haiti are employed in services -—
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Tourism has been gaining importance in the economy of Haiti. The number of inbound tourists has been steadily rising, reaching over 1.3 million in 2018 and 0.9 million in 2019, yet inbound tourism expenditure as a per cent of GPD has remained steady at about 6 per cent -—
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. Haiti’s main trade partner is the United States of America, dominating both imports and exports with 62 and 77 per cent shares in Haiti’s trade, respectively -—
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Haiti’s cultural identity is influenced by both traditional French and African customs, mixing in also elements from Spanish and indigenous cultures. This rich and unique culture is depicted in Haiti’s paintings and sculptures, music and dance, and literature. Haiti’s culture is also prominently spread outside the country through notable artists, such as Frankétienne, one of Haiti's greatest authors, and Wyclef Jean, a hip-hop artist. Football is the most popular sport in Haiti.

Haitians enjoy a mainly Creole cuisine that is a blend of the different culinary styles contributed by the many cultures inhabiting the country. The cuisine is characterized by simple and tasty dishes with bold and spicy flavors. The staples of the diet include beans, corn, potatoes, rice and plantains. The climate supports the cultivation of many tropical fruits. Riz National is a common dish consisting of rice with red kidney beans topped with tomatoes, onions and red snapper. It is often served with a soup with potatoes, tomatoes, meats and spices. Tchaka is a hearty stew consisting of squash, meat and beans.
Land areakm2
Arable land%
Forest area%
Coastline
lengthkm
Exclusive economic zonekm2
Nearest
neighbourkm
Economic trendsMaritime transportPopulationInternational tradeEnvironmentInformation and communications technology
Gross domestic product
US dollars at constant prices (2015) in millions
GDP per capita

2019

US$

Productive Capacity Index

2018

Economic and environmental vulnerability index

2019

Consumer Price Index growth

2019

%

Unemployment
rate

Total %
Female %, Male %
Main economic sectors, 2019
Percentage of GDP
Tourist arrivals
Thousands of tourists, percentage of GDP
External financial resources
Percentage of GDP
Public debt as % of GDP

2018

%

Fleet size
Number of ships
Ship type20112019
Total fleet1 4071 407
Oil tankers264266
Bulk carriers311333
General cargo16177
Container ships5249
Other types of ships619682
Port performance
Ranked by 2019 data within SIDS group
Indicators2019SIDS Ranking
Number of port calls97716
Median time in port (days)18
Average age of vessels1714
Average size (GT) of vessels24 90615
Container port throuput

2019

TEU

Bilateral connectivity index, 2019
Top 5 partners
Liner shipping connectivity index
Maximum China Q1 2006=100
Total population
Thousands of people, share of urban population
Population development indicators
IndicatorsPeriodValue
Poverty headcount (% of population)201224.5
Human development index20180.5
Human assets index202058
Adult literacy rate (15+ years, both sexes %)....
Gender inequality index20190.6
Life expectancy at birth

years

Population density

2019

persons per km2
Dependency
ratio

2019

Child:
Old-age:
Age structure by gender, 2019
Percentage of total population
Merchandise and services trade
US dollars in millions
Indicators20052010201520192019 (% of GDP)
Merchandise exports 470 579 8821 20014.9
Merchandise imports1 4543 1463 6834 51356.1
Services exports 145 453 724 4175.2
Services imports 5441 2771 042 94611.7
Trade openness
Goods and services

% of GDP

Export concentration index

2019

Food import
dependency
Average 2015-2019

Top 5 partners in merchandise trade, 2019
Exports in millions US dollars
Merchandise exports by product group, 2019
Services exports by category, 2019
CO2 emissions per capita
Kg per capita
CO2 emissions per GDP
Kg per 2010 US$ of GDP
Renewable energy share in total energy consumption, 2017
Percentage of total energy consumption
Material
footprint
per capita

2016

kg

Terrestrial
protected
area

2018

%

Marine
protected
area

2018

%

Disasters indicators
Data not available
Trade in ICT goods

Exports: %
Imports: %
Trade in ICT services

Exports: %
Imports: %
Share of
internet users

%

Fixed broadband vs Mobile broadband subscriptions
Number of subscriptions per 100 people
Sources
Source of data: -—
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except indicators listed below.
References
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