Glossary

A-CD-FG-JK-MN-PQ-ST-VW-Z
A classificationA classification scheme can be understood as the descriptive information about the way observation units are arranged into groups, based on common characteristics. -—
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A trained teacherA trained teacher is one who has received at least the minimum organized pedagogical teacher training pre-service and in-service required for teaching at the relevant level in a given country in a given academic year. -—
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Adolescent birth rateAdolescent birth rate measures the annual number of births to women aged 15-19 years per 1 000 women in that age group. The rate provides a basic measure of reproductive health focusing on a vulnerable group of adolescent women. -—
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Adult literacy rateAdult literacy rate is the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over that can read and write -—
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AOSISAlliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
Average hourly earningsAverage hourly earnings measure the gross remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other type of paid leave or holidays. Earnings exclude employers' contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay. Statistics on average hourly earnings by sex are the basis for the calculation of the gender pay gap. -—
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B2CBusiness-to-consumer E-commerce index (B2C)
BiotradeBiotrade refers to those activities of collection, production, transformation, and commercialization of goods and services derived from native biodiversity under the criteria of environmental, social and economic sustainability known as the BioTrade Principles and Criteria -—
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Blank sailingBlank sailing means no sailing or cancelled sailing. It happens when an ocean vessel does not call at one or more of its scheduled intermediate stops. A blank sailing can refer to a sailing skipping one specific port (while still traversing the rest of the scheduled route) or to the entire voyage being cancelled -—
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BMIBody mass index (BMI) formerly called the Quetelet index, is a measure for indicating nutritional status in adults. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of the person’s height in metres (kg/m2). For example, an adult who weighs 70 kg and whose height is 1.75 m will have a BMI of 22.9. -—
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BPM6Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, 6th Edition
CDPCommittee for Development Policy (CDP), until 1998 the Committee for Development Planning -—
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Child dependency ratioChild dependency ratio is defined as the number of children per hundred persons of working age (15 – 64 years old). -—
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CITESThe Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
CO2Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colourless, odourless and non-poisonous gas formed by combustion of carbon and in the respiration of living organisms -—
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Comparative advantageComparative advantage is a concept from Ricardian theory of international trade, which describes a country's possibility to produce a good at lower costs relative to a reference good than another country.
Container port throughputContainer port throughput presents the estimated total number of containers handled, per country, expressed in TEUs.
COVID-19Infectious disease caused by the strain of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 discovered in December 2019. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which may cause illness in animals or humans. In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The most recently discovered coronavirus causes a coronavirus disease called COVID-19.
Current accountCurrent account, within the balance of payments, displays the transactions between residents and non-residents of a reporting economy, involving economic values, namely the cross-national exchange of goods and services as well as cross-national transfers of primary and secondary income -—
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Current account balanceCurrent account balance displays the flows of goods, services, primary income, and secondary income between residents and nonresidents of an economy. The current account balance measures, in general, the difference between current receipts and expenditures for internationally traded goods, services and income payments. At the same time, from a national perspective, the current account balance represents the gap between domestic saving and investment.-—
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DACDevelopment Assistance Committee (DAC)
Debt serviceDebt service refers to payments made to satisfy a debt obligation, including principal, interest and any late payment fees -—
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Debt service on PPG debtDebt service on PPG debt is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in currency, goods, or services on PPG debt.
Dependency ratioDependency ratio is defined as the number of children and older persons per hundred persons of working age (15 – 64 years old). It can be expressed as the sum of the child dependency ratio and the old-age dependency ratio. -—
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Digitally-deliverable servicesDigitally-deliverable services (potentially ICT-enabled services) are an aggregation of services that can be delivered remotely over ICT networks -—
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diseconomies of scaleThe diseconomies of scale, occurs when the average unit costs of production increase beyond a certain level of output. At the point where the average costs are at a minimum, the minimum efficient scale of output of a firm or plant is reached. -—
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Domestic tourismDomestic tourism comprises the activities of a resident visitor within the country of reference, either as part of a domestic tourism trip or part of an outbound tourism trip -—
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Economic and environmental vulnerability index

Economic and environmental vulnerability index is a composite index of two subindices:an economic vulnerability index and an environmental vulnerability index. The economic vulnerability sub-index is made up of four indicators:

  1. Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDP;
  2. Remoteness and landlockedness;
  3. Merchandise export concentration; and
  4. Instability of exports of goods and services.
The environmental vulnerability sub-index is also made up of four indicators:
  1. Share of population in low elevated coastal zones;
  2. Share of population living in drylands;
  3. Instability of agricultural production; and
  4. Victims of disasters.
ECOSOCEconomic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
EEZExclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a concept adopted at the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (1982), whereby a coastal State assumes jurisdiction over the exploration and exploitation of marine resources in its adjacent section of the continental shelf, taken to be a band extending 200 miles from the shore -—
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EM-DATEmergency Events Database (EM-DAT)
Environmental vulnerability indexEnvironmental vulnerability index is comprised of 50 ‘smart’ indicators estimating the vulnerability of the environment of the 235 countries and territories included, to future shocks. It was developed by the -—
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, the United Nations Environment Programme etc. The index defines vulnerability as the potential for attributes of any system, human or natural, to respond adversely to events. It is concerned with the risk of damage to the natural environment of a country. These are: (i) the risk of hazards occurring, (ii) the inherent resistance to damage and (iii) the acquired vulnerability resulting from past damage.
EVIEconomic vulnerability index (EVI): Economic vulnerability can be defined as the probability that a country's economic development may be hampered by unforeseen exogenous shocks -—
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which is one of the three criteria for the identification of the Least Developed Countries. It was also proposed as a criterion for the allocation of official development assistance.
External debtExternal debt is debt owed to nonresidents repayable in currency, goods, or services. -—
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defines it as outstanding amount of those actual current, and not contingent, liabilities that require payment(s) of principal and/or interest by the debtor at some point(s) in the future and that are owed to nonresidents by residents of an economy.
FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
FDIForeign Direct Investment (FDI) is an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident entity in one economy (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) -—
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FERDIFondation pour les études et recherches sur le développement international (FERDI)
Fertility rateFertility rate is defined as “The average number of live births a hypothetical cohort of women would have at the end of their reproductive period if they were subject during their whole lives to the fertility rates of a given period and if they were not subject to mortality. It is expressed as live births per woman.” -—
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Firms with female top managerFirms with female top manager measures the percentage of firms in the private sector who have females as top managers. Top manager refers to the highest ranking manager or CEO of the establishment. This person may be the owner if he/she works as the manager of the firm. -—
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G20Group of Twenty (G20)
GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
GDPGross domestic product (GDP)
GenderGender refers to the roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society at a given time considers appropriate for women and men. In addition to the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, gender also refers to the relations between women and those between men. These attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialization processes. They are context/ time-specific and changeable. Gender determines what is expected, allowed and valued in a woman or a man in a given context. -—
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GIIGender Inequality Index (GII) measures gender inequalities in three aspects of human development: reproductive health, measured by maternal mortality ratio and adolescent birth rates; empowerment, measured by proportion of parliamentary seats occupied by females and proportion of adult females and males aged 25 years and older with at least some secondary education; and economic status, expressed as labor market participation and measured by labor force participation rate of female and male populations aged 15 years and older -—
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Gini indexGini index measures the extent to which the distribution of a variable over a population deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini index of zero represents perfect equality and 100, perfect inequality. -—
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GLIGrubel-Lloyd Index (GLI) is calculated on products categorized as manufacturing intermediate inputs (e.g. parts and components), computed at the industry level (as defined by the 4 digit Harmonized System classification) and then aggregated at the sectoral level using bilateral trade shares. -—
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GNIGross national income (GNI) is equal to GDP less primary incomes payable to non-resident units plus primary incomes receivable from non-resident units. In other words, GNI is equal to GDP less taxes (less subsidies) on production and imports, compensation of employees and property income payable to the rest of the world, plus the corresponding items receivable from the rest of the world. -—
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GNPGross national product (GNP)
Government expenditure on education to in GDPGeneral government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments -—
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HAIHuman Assets Index (HAI) is a summary measure of the level of human capital. It is composed of six indicators with each indicator carrying an equal weight. It comprises the under-five mortality rate, prevalence of stunting, maternal mortality rate, gross secondary school enrollment ratio, adult literacy rate and gender parity index for gross secondary school enrollment.-—
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HDIHuman development index (HDI) is a summary measure of average achievement of human development in three dimensions: health, education and standards of living. The health dimension is assessed by life expectancy at birth, the education dimension by mean of years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and more, and expected years of schooling for children of school entering age. The standard of living dimension is measured by GNI per capita. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions. The cut off points are: HDI of less than 0.550 for low human development, 0.550–0.699 for medium human development, 0.700–0.799 for high human development and 0.800 or greater for very high human development. -—
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HSHarmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS)
ICLSInternational Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)
ICTInformation and communications technology (ICT)
ICT goodsICT goods are those goods that are either intended to fulfil the function of information processing and communication by electronic means, including transmission and display, which use electronic processing to detect, measure and/or record physical phenomena, or to control a physical process -—
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ICT servicesICT services are defined in the alternate aggregation of the ISIC Rev.4 as a component of the ICT sector and include software publishing, telecommunications, computer programming, consultancy and related activities, data processing, hosting and related activities, web portals, and repair of computers and communication equipment -—
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ICTSDInternational Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
IDAInternational Development Association (IDA)
IDCsIsland Developing Countries (IDCs)
IFFsIllicit financial flows (IFFs) are defined as financial flows that are illicit in origin, transfer or use, that reflect an exchange of value and that cross country borders. The four main types of activities that can generate IFFs include: 1) tax and commercial activities; 2) illegal markets; 3) corruption; and 4) exploitation-type activities and financing of crime and terrorism -—
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ILOInternational Labour Organization (ILO)
IMFInternational Monetary Fund
IMOInternational Maritime Organization (IMO)
Inbound tourismInbound tourism comprises the activities of a non-resident visitor within the country of reference on an inbound tourism trip -—
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Inbound tourism expenditureInbound tourism expenditure is the tourism expenditure of a non-resident visitor within the economy of reference -—
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Industrial productionIndustrial production, or industry includes in ISIC Rev. 3 mining and quarrying (ISIC C), manufacturing (ISIC D), electricity, gas and water supply (ISIC E) and construction (ISIC F) -—
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Informal employmentInformal employment comprises persons who in their main or secondary jobs were own-account workers, employers and members of producers’ cooperatives; own-account workers engaged in the production of goods exclusively for own final use by their household; contributing family workers; and employees holding informal jobs. The criteria used are based on employment status, institutional sector, destination of production, bookkeeping, registration, social security contribution, places of work and size. -—
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International tourismInternational tourism comprises inbound tourism and outbound tourism, i.e., the activities of resident visitors outside the country of reference, either as part of domestic or outbound tourism trips and the activities of non-resident visitors within the country of reference on inbound tourism trips -—
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IRTSInternational Recommendations for Tourism Statistics (IRTS)
ISICInternational standard industrial classification of all economic activities
ITUInternational Telecommunication Union (ITU)
km2Square kilometre (km2)
Labour force participation rateLabour force participation rate is defined as the ratio of the labour force to the working age population. It is a measure of the extent of an economy’s working-age population that is economically active. It provides an indication of the relative size of the supply of labour available to produce goods and services. The breakdown of the labour force by sex and age group gives a profile of the distribution of the economically active population within a country. -—
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LCSILiner shipping connectivity index/indices (LSCI) measure the relative position of a country/pair of countries/port in global container shipping networks. This position has important implications for trade competitiveness.
LDCsLeast developed countries (LDCs) are low-income countries confronting severe structural impediments to sustainable development. They are highly vulnerable to economic and environmental shocks and have low levels of human assets -—
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LLDCLandlocked least developed countries (LLDC)
LNGLiquified natural gas (LNG)
LPGLiquified petroleum gas (LPG)
LSBCILiner shipping bilateral connectivity index (LSBCI)
M49 classificationM49 classification provides Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use (Series M, No. 49). It is a standard used by the United Nations for statistical purposes, developed and maintained by UNSD.
ManufacturingManufacturing can broadly be understood as "the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products" -—
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, consisting of section D in ISIC Rev. 3 -—
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MFNMost Favoured Nation (MFN)
mmmillimetre (mm)
MMTMillion Metric Tons (MMT)
Monthly earnings of employeesMonthly earnings of employees relate to the gross remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other type of paid leave or holidays -—
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MVAManufacturing value added (MVA) is the net-output of all resident manufacturing activity units. It is obtained by adding up their outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs -—
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Non-communicable diseasesNon-communicable diseases, also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors -—
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ObesityObesity for adults is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30. Globally, 13 per cent were obese in 2016 -—
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Oceans economyOceans economy is defined as a subset of, and complement to, the evolving development paradigm emphasizing greener and more sustainable and inclusive economic paths -—
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ODAOfficial Development Assistance (ODA) are resource flows to countries and territories which are: (a) undertaken by the official sector; (b) with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective; (c) at concessional financial terms (implying a minimum grant element depending on the recipient country and the type of loan). In addition to financial flows, technical co-operation is also included -—
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OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
OECSOrganisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
Old-age dependency ratioOld-age dependency ratio is defined as the number of older persons per hundred persons of working age (15 – 64 years old). -—
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Other business servicesOther business services cover research and development, professional and management consulting, and technical, trade-related, and other business services -—
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Other service activitiesOther service activities are the activities covered by the divisions J to P of ISIC, thus: financial intermediation (J); real estate, renting and business activities (K); public administration and defense, compulsory social security (L); education (M); health and social work (N); other community social and personal service activities (O); and activities of private households as employers and undifferentiated production activities of private households (P) -—
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Outbound tourismOutbound tourism comprises the activities of a resident visitor outside the country of reference, either as part of an outbound tourism trip or as part of a domestic tourism trip -—
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Outbound tourism expenditureOutbound tourism expenditure is the tourism expenditure of a resident visitor outside the economy of reference -—
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OverweightOverweight for adults is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25. Globally, over 39 per cent of adults were overweight in 2016 -—
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Paris Climate AgreementParis Climate Agreement is an agreement within the UNFCCC aiming is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further, to 1.5°C. It aims to strengthen countries’ ability to deal with the impacts of climate change. To reach these ambitious goals, appropriate financial flows, a new technology framework and an enhanced capacity building framework are intended to support developing countries, in line with their national objectives -—
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PCIProductive Capacities Index (PCI) is a multidimensional composite index that measures productive capacities of economies by using eight categories: natural and human capital, energy, institutions, private sector, structural change, transport and information, and communication technologies, which together yield the multidimensional productive capacity index. The choice of indicators to measure productive capacity is based on the -—
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definition and the availability of comparable data.
Personal remittancesPersonal remittances comprise (1) compensation of employees, defined as the income of workers employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by non-resident employers; and (2) personal (current) transfers, defined as current transfers in kind or in cash, between resident and non-resident households -—
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PNGPrivate nonguaranteed external debt (PNG) comprises long-term external obligations of private debtors that are not guaranteed for repayment by a public entity.
Poverty linePoverty line is an income level that is considered minimally sufficient to sustain a family in terms of food, housing, clothing, medical needs, and so on -—
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. The international poverty line is set at $1.90 using 2011 prices -—
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PPGPublic and publicly guaranteed (PPG) debt comprises long-term external obligations of public debtors, including the national government, Public Corporations, State Owned Enterprises, Development Banks and Other Mixed Enterprises, political subdivisions (or an agency of either), autonomous public bodies, and external obligations of private debtors that are guaranteed for repayment by a public entity.
PPPPurchasing power parity (PPP)
Primary commoditiesPrimary commodities are goods where all, or almost all, of the value-added during production has been generated by the primary sectors of the economy i.e. primary commodities are largely unprocessed or unrefined. -—
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Primary educationPrimary education provides learning and educational activities typically designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics (i.e. literacy and numeracy), and to establish a sound foundation for learning and solid understanding of core areas of knowledge and personal development, preparing for lower secondary education. It aims at learning at a basic level of complexity with little if any specialisation -—
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Productive capacityProductive capacity, is a concept developed by UNCTAD based on three dimensions: the productive resources, the entrepreneurial capabilities and production linkages which together determine the capacity of a country to produce goods and services and enable it to grow and develop -—
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Pupil-teacher ratioPupil-teacher ratio measures pupils’ access to trained teachers and, thus, the quality of education and the allocation of human resources for it.
R&DResearch and development (R&D)
RCARevealed comparative advantage (RCA) is based on Ricardian trade theory, which posits that patterns of trade among countries are governed by their relative differences in productivity. Although such productivity differences are difficult to observe, an RCA metric can be readily calculated using trade data to "reveal" such differences. While the metric can be used to provide a general indication and first approximation of a country's competitive export strengths, it should be noted that applied national measures which affect competitiveness such as tariffs, non-tariff measures, subsidies and others are not taken into account in the RCA metric. -—
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SAMOA pathwaySIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway is an international framework that was developed as the outcome of the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS Conference) held on 1-4 September 2014 in Apia, Samoa -—
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SDGSustainable Development Goals (SDG)
SDSNSustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN)
Secondary educationSecondary education provides learning and educational activities building on primary education and preparing for both first labour market entry as well as post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education. Broadly speaking, secondary education aims at learning at an intermediate level of complexity. ISCED distinguishes lower and upper secondary education -—
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SEEASystem of Environmental Economic Accounts (SEEA)
Service sectorService sector includes according to ISIC Rev. 3 G-P: wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels (ISIC G-H), transport, storage and communications (ISIC I) and other activities (ISIC J-P) -—
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ServitizationServitization is the process whereby the relative importance of service offerings from a business unit increases, leading to a greater service business orientation. It refers to the process where the production and sale of a product is increasingly bundled with services such as leasing and other financial services, maintenance and repair, training, customer support agreements and outcome contracts. From the point of view of measurement, this means that an increasing share of value added originates from service activities, possibly leading to a classification of an establishment as a service provider. -—
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Ship ownershipShip ownership refers to “Beneficial Ownership Location”: it indicates the economy in which the company that has the main commercial responsibility for the vessel is located -—
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Ship registrationShip registration refers to mechanism for establishing a ship's nationality and for regulating shipping -—
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. In 2020, 56 per cent of the beneficially owned fleet was registered under a foreign flag -—
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Short-term debtShort-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt.
SIDSsmall island developing States (SIDS) were recognized as a distinct group of developing countries at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992.
More information on UNCTAD official page.
SIDVSSmall island developing and vulnerable states (SIDVS)
SITCStandard International Trade Classification (SITC)
SIVSSmall island vulnerable states (SIVS)
SMEsSmall and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)
SOPACSouth Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC)
SSFSmall States Forum (SSF)
Structural transformationStructural transformation can be broadly defined as the reallocation of economic activity across three broad sectors, agriculture, manufacturing and services, which accompanies the process of economic growth. -—
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It usually refers to the transfer or shift of production factors — especially labour, capital and land — away from activities and sectors with low productivity to those with higher productivity, which are typically different in location, organization and technology -—
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Subsistence economySubsistence economy is an economy directed to basic subsistence (the provision of food, clothing, shelter) rather than to the market.
Taper tantrumTaper tantrum refers to the 2013 collective panic that triggered a spike in treasury yields in the United States of America, after investors learned of Federal Reserve’s plans to wind down the program, known as quantitative easing -—
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TBTAgreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
TEUTwenty-foot Equivalent Unit (TEU) represent the volume of standard 20-feet long intermodal container units.
Total net enrolment rateTotal net enrolment rate : Total number of students of the official age group for a given level of education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The purpose of the indicator is to measure the actual school participation of official school age population for the given level of education. -—
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Total public debtTotal public debt refers to both public external debt (short-term and long-term alike) and public domestic debt.
TourismTourism refers to the activity of visitors -—
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. International tourism expenditure is often approximated by the sum of travel services and transport of passengers, reported under balance of payments statistics (see Trade in services). Transport of passengers not considered, tourism represents a subset of travel, as some travelers, such as border-workers, travel for regular work, as they are holding employment contracts outside their usual residential environment. Activities of border-workers and similar travelers do not belong under tourism. -—
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Tourism direct contribution to GDPTourism direct contribution to GDP is the part of gross value added (at basic prices) generated by any industry in response to internal tourism consumption plus the amount of net taxes on products and imports included within the value of this expenditure at purchasers’ prices -—
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. Tourism does not exist as a separate industry in the standard industrial classification but is embedded in various other industries. Thus, tourism direct GDP corresponds to the part of GDP generated by all industries directly in contact with visitors -—
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Tourism expenditureTourism expenditure refers to the amount paid for the acquisition of consumption goods and services, as well as valuables, for own use or to give away, for and during tourism trips. It includes expenditures by visitors themselves, as well as expenses that are paid for or reimbursed by others -—
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Tourism industriesTourism industries refer to tourism characteristic activities which include those ISIC activities that typically produce tourism characteristic products. These are listed at ISIC 4-digit level in Annex 3 of IRTS. -—
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Tourism Satellite AccountTourism Satellite Account has been developed to present economic data relative to tourism within a framework of internal and external consistency with the rest of the statistical system through its link to the System of National Accounts. It is the basic reconciliation framework of tourism statistics -—
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Tourism sectorTourism sector is the cluster of production units in different industries that provide consumption goods and services demanded by visitors. Such industries are called tourism industries because visitor acquisition represents such a significant share of their supply that in the absence of visitors, the production of these would cease to exist in meaningful quantities -—
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trade in servicesIn the international trade in services context, services are understood as the result of a production activity that changes the conditions of the consuming units or facilitates the exchange of products or financial assets -—
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. Following the balance-of-payments classification, trade in services refers to manufacturing services, repair services, transport, travel, construction, telecommunications, computer services, financial services, insurance, intellectual-property related and other business services, as well as personal and cultural services, and government services.
Trade-to-GDP ratioTrade-to-GDP ratio can be calculated for exports, imports and the sum of exports and imports as percentage of GDP.
Travel servicesWithin the balance-of-payments classification of services, travel services cover goods and services - for own use or to give away - acquired from an economy by non-residents during visits to that economy. In this context, travel does not include passenger transport. -—
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TRIPSTrade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
UCL-CREDCentre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (UCL-CRED)
UCPIUNCTAD Commodity Price Index (UCPI)
UN-OHRLLSUnited Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS)
UNCEDUnited Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)
UNDESAUnited Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Unemployment rateUnemployment rate (as defined by the ILO for international comparison) measures the proportion of the labour force that does not have a job, is available to work and is actively looking for work. The labour force is the sum of the total persons employed and unemployed. The overall unemployment rate for a country is a widely used measure of its unutilized labour supply. -—
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UNEPUnited Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
UNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
UNFPAUnited Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
UNICEFUnited Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
UNIDOUnited Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNISDRUnited Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)
UNSDUnited Nations Statistics Division
UNWTOUnited Nations World Tourism Organization
VisitorVisitor is a traveller taking a trip to a main destination outside his/her usual environment, for less than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a resident entity in the country or place visited -—
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WCEDWorld Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)
WEFWorld Economic Forum
WHOWorld Health Organization (WHO)
Women, Business and the Law indexWomen, Business and the Law index measures global progress toward gender equality in the law in 190 economies annually. Overall scores are calculated by taking the average score of each of the eight areas: Mobility, workplace, pay, marriage, parenthood, entrepreneurship, assets and pension. 100 represents the highest possible score for gender equality in the law. -—
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Working poverty rateWorking poverty rate conveys the percentage of employed persons living in poverty in spite of being employed. Poverty is defined using the international poverty line of US$1.90 per day in PPP. -—
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WTOWorld Trade Organization (WTO)
WTTCWorld Travel and Tourism Council
References
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