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Cabo Verde

  • Capital Praia, on Santiago (14°55´N, 23°31´W)
  • International airport(s) Amílcar Cabral International Airport, Nelson Mandela International Airport, Aristides Pereira International Airport, Cesária évora Airport
  • Official language(s) Portuguese
  • Currency Cabo Verdean escudo
  • Time UTC -1
  • Region Atlantic and Indian Ocean
GeographyClimateEconomyCulture
The Cabo Verde archipelago consists of ten volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean, of which nine are inhabited. The archipelago is situated 570 km west of the Senegalese coast of West Africa, and named after Cap‐Vert, or the green peninsula. The islands cover a combined area of slightly over 4 000 km2, and are divided into the Barlavento (Windward) group to the north and the Sotavento (Leeward) group to the south. The nation's capital, Praia, is located on Santiago, the largest island. The largest port of the islands is located at Mindelo, on São Vicente. It has a deep water harbour that can accommodate large vessels and has been used as a fueling station since the 19th century.
Cabo Verde enjoys a moderate climate characterized by stable temperatures; average monthly temperatures range from 21 to 26 °C. Three distinct seasons can be identified: a transition season from November to February, a dry season in the middle, and a rainy season from July to October. -—
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Owing to their proximity to the Sahara, most of the Cabo Verde islands are dry and arid. The archipelago can be divided into four broad ecological zones: arid, semiarid, subhumid and humid, according to altitude and average annual rainfall, which ranges from 200 mm along the arid coastline to more than 1 000 mm in the humid mountains. The annual average rainfall for the country is below 350 mm -—
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Most rainfall precipitation is due to condensation of ocean mist. The islands have few rivers and suffer from cyclical drought and chronic water shortages, despite seasonal rains. Rains can be torrential, often causing significant damage, soil loss from water erosion and flooding. Western Hemisphere‐bound hurricanes often have their early beginnings near the Cabo Verde Islands. These are referred to as Cabo Verde‐type hurricanes and can become very intense. The five largest Atlantic tropical cyclones on record have been Cabo Verde‐type hurricanes.
With all year‐round sun, Cabo Verde's economy is driven by tourism. The country's service exports concentrate on transport and travel. Travel and tourism's contribution to the economy is large: In 2019, inbound tourism expenditure over GDP reached almost 29 per cent -—
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. With few natural or mineral resources and water shortages, exacerbated by cycles of sustained drought, agriculture is subsistence. According to the items attribute is mandatory, over 10 per cent of the territory is classified as arable land. The main crops grown are maize and beans, but bananas, sugar cane, sweet potatoes and cassava are also grown. Approximately 90 per cent of food consumed is imported. Agriculture accounts for about 10 per cent of employment on the islands; roughly 15 per cent for men. Over 80 per cent of women and 50 per cent of men are employed in services -—
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. The seas around Cabo Verde are rich with many types of fish, therefore, a large proportion of exports consist of fish and sea food, but also clothing and footwear. The largest export partners are Spain, Portugal and Italy -—
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In 2013, the Cabo Verdean government determined that the Portuguese designation Cabo Verde would henceforth be used for official purposes, as at the United Nations, even in English contexts.

Cabo Verde's culture is influenced by a blend of its Portuguese as well as African traditions. Music is very important to island culture ‐ the archipelago's most famous musical export is Cesaria Evora, the world renowned morna and coladeras artist. Other musical forms, such as, batuko and funaná are also popular on the islands. Cabo Verde has also produced a number of talented poets and authors including Baltasar Lopes da Silva, Frusoni Sergio, Eugénio Tavares and Manuel Lopes.

Local sports, such as uril and bisca, are popular throughout the country and tend to attract large crowds. Football is very popular amongst Cabo Verdeans, fueled by strong inter island rivalry. Basketball, long‐distance running and swimming are also popular. Windsurfing, fishing, cycling, golfing, hiking, mountain climbing, horseback riding and scuba diving are common resort activities. The traditional African board game of ouri is also popular on the island.
Land areakm2
Arable land%
Forest area%
Coastline
lengthkm
Exclusive economic zonekm2
Nearest
neighbourkm
Economic trendsMaritime transportPopulationInternational tradeEnvironmentInformation and communications technology
Gross domestic product
US dollars at constant prices (2015) in millions
GDP per capita

2019

US$

Productive Capacity Index

2018

Economic and environmental vulnerability index

2019

Consumer Price Index growth

2019

%

Unemployment
rate

Total %
Female %, Male %
Main economic sectors, 2019
Percentage of GDP
Tourist arrivals
Thousands of tourists, percentage of GDP
External financial resources
Percentage of GDP
Public debt as % of GDP

2018

%

Fleet size
Number of ships
Ship type20112019
Total fleet1 4071 407
Oil tankers264266
Bulk carriers311333
General cargo16177
Container ships5249
Other types of ships619682
Port performance
Ranked by 2019 data within SIDS group
Indicators2019SIDS Ranking
Number of port calls3 5656
Median time in port (days)0.726
Average age of vessels342
Average size (GT) of vessels4 97632
Container port throuput

2019

TEU

Bilateral connectivity index, 2019
Top 5 partners
Liner shipping connectivity index
Maximum China Q1 2006=100
Total population
Thousands of people, share of urban population
Population development indicators
IndicatorsPeriodValue
Poverty headcount (% of population)20153.4
Human development index20180.7
Human assets index202087
Adult literacy rate (15+ years, both sexes %)201589.9
Gender inequality index20190.4
Life expectancy at birth

years

Population density

2019

persons per km2
Dependency
ratio

2019

Child:
Old-age:
Age structure by gender, 2019
Percentage of total population
Merchandise and services trade
US dollars in millions
Indicators20052010201520192019 (% of GDP)
Merchandise exports184467623.1
Merchandise imports43874260479640.2
Services exports27750750174237.4
Services imports21530827636318.3
Trade openness
Goods and services

% of GDP

Export concentration index

2019

Food import
dependency
Average 2015-2019

Top 5 partners in merchandise trade, 2019
Exports in millions US dollars
Merchandise exports by product group, 2019
Services exports by category, 2019
CO2 emissions per capita
Kg per capita
CO2 emissions per GDP
Kg per 2010 US$ of GDP
Renewable energy share in total energy consumption, 2017
Percentage of total energy consumption
Material
footprint
per capita

2016

kg

Terrestrial
protected
area

2018

%

Marine
protected
area

2018

%

Disasters indicators
Data not available
Trade in ICT goods

Exports: %
Imports: %
Trade in ICT services

Exports: %
Imports: %
Share of
internet users

%

Fixed broadband vs Mobile broadband subscriptions
Number of subscriptions per 100 people
Sources
Source of data: -—
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except indicators listed below.
References
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